Welcome to Since Time Immemorial

Curriculum Overview: Welcome to Since Time Immemorial, or STI.  OSPI, private and public agencies, and several of the 29 Federally Recognized Tribes in Washington State have partnered and funded this ground-breaking curriculum initiative.  All 29 tribes have endorsed its importance and use.  This site houses resources, materials, lessons, and entire units to support the teaching of tribal sovereignty, tribal history, and current tribal issues within the context of OSPI recommended units for Washington and US history in the elementary and middle school levels and US history and Contemporary World Issues in the high school level. Each unit is aligned with National Common Core State Standards, state standards and builds toward the successful completion of a Content-Based Assessment, or CBA.
Teachers will find that it’s easy to integrate tribal perspectives into their already existing lesson plans.  Throughout the school year, teachers can choose to spend as little as one hour or as much as six weeks of class time to either introduce or focus on the tribal perspectives of an historical issue, era, or event.   Each unit is aligned with state standards and builds toward the successful completion of a Content-Based Assessment, or CBA.Select the curriculum menu item and select your grade level to connect yourself to a wealth of information, videos, and resources surrounding what was and is happening in Indian country.

 The New OSPI Office of Native Education Logo was design by Roger Fernandes, Lower Elwha Klallam, and it blends a Coast Salish eagle on the left and Plateau basket design on the right to represent the diversity of Tribes in Washington State.

Welcome to Since Time Immemorial video


 Office of Native Education Director Denny Sparr Hurtado, member of the Skokomish Tribe, describes the genesis and purpose of this groundbreaking curriculum initiative.  Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State was made possible through a unique tribal-state partnership.

Our Responsibility
US Constitution

Article I, Sec. 8

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among several states, and with the Indian Tribes.

Article VI
The constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.

About STI

STI is…

  • Collaborative: Our curriculum encourages participation with local tribes. Our goal is to teach WITH tribes, rather than about them.
  • Reliable & Adaptable: STI begins with providing a basic framework of Indian history and understanding of tribal sovereignty.  As teachers become more familiar with the content, they can choose to adapt these lessons to better reflect the specific histories of their local tribal and nontribal communities. Read more



Welcome to “Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State,” a ground-breaking curriculum initiative made possible through federal, state, and tribal funding. This project seeks to build lasting educational partnerships between school districts and their local tribes via elementary, middle, and high school curriculum on tribal sovereignty.

Read more


We have put together a vast array of resources to assist you in ensuring that all students have a deeper understanding of the history and culture of Tribes in the Pacific Northwest. This section provides a comprehensive inventory of the resources needed for the education section of this site and includes: primary resources (i.e., documents, images, & maps), video, and external Web sites referenced in the  Lesson Plans and more. Read more